Universities & Colleges
Research Institutes
Medical physics
  From parish schools in the XVII century through establishment of Kharkiv college which remained the educational centre of Sloboda Ukraine till the beginning of the XIX century marked with the foundation of Kharkiv University - this was how the history of Kharkiv education unfolded. From the date of its foundation the Kharkiv University became the centre of enlightenment and scientific knowledge not only in Sloboda Ukraine (Slobozhanshchina) but also for the whole Southern part of Russia. It was the Kharkiv University where the famous microbiologist I. I. Mechnikov defended his diploma thesis. Before the revolution of 1917, well-known scientists worked within its precincts. Among them were a physicist and chemist N. N. Beketov, mathematicians M. V. Ostrogradsky, V. A. Steklov, A. M. Lyapunov, historians A. I. Yavornitsky, D. I. Bagaley, biochemist A. Ya. Danilevsky, philologist A. A. Potebnya and many others.
  With the development of capitalism in Russia it became necessary to prepare qualified specialists for various industries which led to the foundation in Kharkiv of the Technological Institute in 1885. Its first head was the well-known scientist, professor of mechanics V. L. Kirpichyov. The high level of proficiency of graduates of Kharkiv Technological Institute is demonstrated by the following facts: its graduates include the pioneer of the national aviation, the prominent ship building engineer L. M. Matsiyevich, and the People's Commissar on heavy industry L. B. Krasin. In the following years other educational institutions were opened in Kharkiv: the Women's Medical Institute (1910) and the Agricultural Institute (evacuated from Alexandria to Kharkiv in 1914). There were a total of six higher educational institutions in Kharkiv before the revolution. They were also the centres of scientific research in their corresponding areas. In the second half of the XIX century, different scientific societies began to play an active part in scientific development. A noteworthy one among these was the Kharkiv Medical Society, founded in 1861. On the 25th anniversary of its founding the Society opened a bacteriological station with the Pasteur Institute and a microscopic chemistry room. In 1894, a station department was created - the Curative Vaccine and Sera Institute. Consequently it became the basis of the Bacteriological Institute. The people who worked at the Institute included L. S. Tsenkovsky, V. K. Vysokovich, V. I. Nedrigailov, I. I. Mechnikov (consequently the Institute was named after him). The Institute conducted intensive research on immunology and epidemiology, supplied bacteriological preparations to all Russian provinces, but did not have government support and was funded by public contributions! In 1907 with the assistance of the Medical Society the country's first traumatic surgery research organization was set up in Kharkiv (currently Orthopedics And Traumatic Surgery Research Institute named after M. I. Sitenko). In 1901, Ukraine's first Kharkiv Verification Office was created in the city initiated by the great Russian scientist D. I. Mendeleyev. Eventually it was used as the basis for Ukraine's Principal Office of Measures and Weights (currently Metrology Research Institute). In 1909 Kharkiv Agricultural Society set up the Selection Station (currently Plant Cultivation, Selection, and Genetics Research Institute named after V. Y. Yuryev).
  The Soviet power declared the development of science in Kharkiv the state priority. The newly organized research institutes on the one hand carried out explorations in the fields traditionally developed in Kharkiv (medicine, biology, mathematics, mechanics, chemistry) and on the other hand they helped to solve problems which were urgent for the state needs to ensure rapid development of heavy and defense industry, transportation modernization, power engineering, nuclear physics, management of water and forest resources. Kharkiv research institutes had performed their job and were working on the tasks offered to them which in turn initiated the foundation of new research institutes, the influx of brain power and the increase of scientific research funding. This trend did not reverse even during the Great Patriotic War. In particular the Kharkiv physico-mathematical school took part in construction of missile weapons and aviation, the famous T-34 tank was created under the guidance of Kharkiv engineer M. I. Koshkin.
  The time from the 1950's to the 1980's was the period of prosperity of Kharkiv scientific school. Kharkiv became one of the world's space research centres which was tied up with the development of physical and mathematical science. Kharkiv scientists can be proud of great accomplishments done in the areas of genetics, cryogenic biology, powder metallurgy, transport and turbo generator mechanical engineering, engine construction , creation of effective and environmentally clean fuel, development of high quality construction materials. In the 1980's every fifth Ukraine's research institute and every seventh scientist in Ukraine worked in Kharkiv. About 180 research institutions and R&D groups were operating in the city. These included 67 research institutes, 80,000 scientists, including 500 Doctors of Science (professors) and more than 4,500 candidates of science (PhD) and the Scientific Centre of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences was opened here in Kharkiv.
  At present, as Ukraine became a sovereign state, the Kharkiv higher education and research institutes are undergoing structural reorganization. We are not going to make comments or present the final analysis on the current state of science in Kharkiv. Time will show what the 1990's are going to be.
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