|Power Engineering & Fuel Industry||Glass-Ware, Porcelain & Glazed Pottery|
|Mechanical Engineering & Metal-Working||Light Industry|
|Electronics & Instrument-Making||Food Processing Industry|
|Ferrous & Non-Ferrous Metallurgy||Medical Industry & Microbiology|
|Chemical & Petrochemical Industry||Agriculture & Forestry|
|Construction Materials||Transport & Communications|
|Pulp and Paper, Woodworking Industry||Construction Services|
Kharkiv Region Produces:
of steam turbines which are made in Ukraine;
60% tractors, 55% ball-bearings, 50% numerically controlled machine tools,
50% electric machines, 45% natural gas, 45% ceramic tiles and facing slabs
DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRY IN KHARKIV
After the abolition of serfdom in 1860 Russia began developing capitalism.
Kharkiv was transforming into a major industrial centre of mechanical engineering
and steel processing. In 1899, two hundred and fifty nine plants and factories
were operating in the city, among them fifty nine engineering and steel
processing works with 11 608 employees
The construction of the railway played an important role in the industrial development of Kharkiv. In 1869 railway connection was established with Moscow, Petersburg and Rostov, and with the opening of Kharkiv-Sevastopol, Kharkiv-Mykolaiv, and South-west (Balashovskaya) railways Kharkiv became one of the major railway junctions in Russia. At the turn of XX century Kharkiv continues to grow as a large industrial and railway centre of the South Russia. In 1917 the number of mechanical engineering and steel processing works exceeded 150 and the number of their employees amounted to 35 000. Offices of the biggest syndicates in Russia such as "Prodamet" and "Produgol" were opened in Kharkiv. Conferences of businessmen involved in mining industry were held here too.
After establishment of Soviet power in Ukraine there were years of fighting with Austrian-German invasion and the Civil War but after that there began a period of rapid economic growth in Kharkiv which was declared the capital of Ukraine in the year of 1919. In the end of 1925 all industrial establishments in the city were restored and their share in the aggregate volume of production in Ukrainian Republic was 20%. In 1926 there began the process of modernization of Kharkiv plants and factories which resulted in their labour productivity rate of 150-200% more as compared to the prewar period while some of the plants like "Svet Shakhtera" (Miner's Light) plant had production volumes up to 35 times higher than in 1913. At the same time Kharkovites selflessly worked on building new plants. On October 1st, 1931 one of the giants of the Soviet heavy industry - the Kharkiv tractor plant produced its first tractor. Three years after a turbo generator (currently turbo engine) plant named after S. M. Kirov was started. Machine tool plant, surveyor tools plant, crane equipment plant, sanitary engineering equipment plant, tractor spare parts plant, "Porshen" (piston) plant , "Hydroprivod" (hydraulic drive) plant, and various other plants were built in the 30's. In 1940 1200 enterprises were operating in Kharkiv which had 300 000 workers employed and their aggregate production volume was 12 times more than in 1913. At that time, Kharkiv plants produced 40% of mechanical engineering production in Ukraine and 6% in the whole Soviet Union. Intensive development of Kharkiv as a railway junction continued accompanied by installation of up-to-date equipment.
The peaceful and creative flow of life of Kharkovites was interrupted by the Second World War. The work in the city was quickly reorganized to serve the needs of the war. Mass production of tanks, war planes, guns, mortars, ammunition, military equipment began at that time, and this was despite the fact that 100 000 men went to the front to fight as volunteers and 85 000 joined militia regiments. Difficult fate befell Kharkiv: after sustained battles, the Soviet armies were forced to surrender Kharkiv on October, 24th 1941 and the period of Nazi occupation began. The story of this dark time probably deserves to be narrated separately. It is worth to point out now that the first international military tribunal was held not in Nuremberg but in Kharkiv in 1943 after the liberation of the city. Extensive evidence of the war crimes was collected here. The invaders almost completely destroyed 500 industrial establishments and first of all the mechanical engineering giants (the tractor plant, the electric machine plant, the turbo engine plant, the machine tool plant, "Serp i Molot" plant), they turned to ruins the railway junctions, telegraph and telephone connection, power stations, municipal economy, medical institutions, 1 600 000 sq. metres of housing floor space.
Upon liberation of Kharkiv intensive efforts were made at its restoration and the rest of the country helped the city: equipment, building materials, food supplies, manpower were sent in. In 1945 600 industrial establishments were operating in the city. In 1948 the industrial production reached the pre-war level and in 1956 the industrial output was already four times more than in 1940. Kharkiv restored its fame of the major mechanical engineering centre in Ukraine. The city produced locomotives, airplanes, tractors, turbines, metal cutting machines, mining and chemical equipment, automation instruments, equipment for light industry and food processing.
In 1980 60 industrial corporations were operating in Kharkiv and most important among them were the tractor construction corporation, "Electrotyazhmash" (heavy machinery) , "Serp i Molot" motor plant, the mechanical engineering corporation, aviation plant, numerically controlled machine tool plant. The powerful Kharkiv made tractors paved the way to the South Pole, made in Kharkiv jet airplanes served the international flights, numerically controlled metal cutting machine tools, engines, electrical equipment, automation and communication instruments, bicycles, TV-sets, cameras, were shipped to other regions in the USSR and exported to 60 countries of the world.
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